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However, since drone operators—particularly model aircraft operators—do not require credentials, they may not be deterred by administrative action.

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At this time, there is no low-cost sense and avoid system applicable to small UAS and large aircraft . This type of UAS is supposed to remain within 400 feet of the surface.[xx] A collision at 2,300 feet might have ended in tragedy for the 23 passengers and crew. In the 2013 UAS Roadmap, FAA observed, “government agencies and industry need to investigate link security requirements [e.g.In a similar incident in 2011, an Air Force C-130 collided with an unmanned aircraft in Afghanistan. jamming, hacking, and spoofing].”[xxvi] However, as of June 2014, a DOT audit found UAS frequency space remains unreserved and that security vulnerabilities from link interference remain unresolved.[xxvii] To address integration problems, FAA established six UAS test sites together with states, universities, and industry.Similar policies have produced positive results in other industries.For example, the Department of Justice, via the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) restricts the availably of explosives to individuals or enterprises with a legitimate need.These systems are under development, but the Department of Transportation (DOT) Inspector General observed, “[FAA] is behind schedule . Mica Endsley, Chief Scientist of the United States Air Force, notes, “Drones have scary implications, but the FAA has developed a plan.

They are currently working on ‘sense and avoid’—a new technology that will alert aircraft to the presence of drones.”[xviii] But Rory Paul, the CEO of Volt Aerial Robotics Company, a firm that produces agricultural drones, fears “There are still key safety components missing. .”[xix] A recent FAA safety report underscores the need for SAA; in 2014 an American Airlines Group regional jet in Florida nearly collided with a drone at 2,300 feet. [and] has not developed procedures for ensuring that all UAS safety incidents are [shared] with the U. Department of Defense (Do D), the largest user of UAS.”[xxiii] Strangely, despite FAA’s overwhelming focus on aviation safety, their regional safety inspectors do not oversee UAS operations in person because inspectors lack the necessary guidance and resources.[xxiv] FAA is retooling its process, but the delivery date for new procedures is September 2015—rather late considering the importance of this issue and the congressional deadline.[xxv] While congested airspace will remain problematic for all aircraft, a crowded frequency spectrum is an added issue for unmanned aircraft.

Louis] hit the 30th floor of the 593-foot-tall building.”[xxx] FAA rules do not provide adequate deterrence against reckless or criminal behavior—indeed it minimally regulates model aircraft.[xxxi] While drones pose a substantial risk to buildings and other infrastructure, perhaps the greatest threat they pose is to people concentrated in open venues such as sporting events. Paul as asked about the potential hazards to crowds at outdoor venues he noted: “Looking down the road at these kinds of scenarios, all we need is one UAS to hit a person on the ground then it’s all over [the industry will be hit hard].”[xxxiii] Moreover, legal ambiguity and outdated regulations could favor defendants, thereby undermining the deterrent effect of criminal prosecution. As an administrative agency, the FAA may only levy fines or revoke credentials.

In the case of responsible, credentialed aircraft operators, administrative actions help deter unsafe acts.

The event focuses on developing solutions for SAA and C2 problems. While this interagency cooperation was encouraging, the Challenge was cancelled due to technical problems and cost overruns.

At this point, a delay in the Reform Act’s ordered integration is unavoidable.

Manned aircraft implement a concept known as “see and avoid.” However, a remotely piloted aircraft requires an alternative safety system because it cannot always see obstacles.